www.newjordanstrade.com When King Abdullah II ascended the throne seventy-eight years later, in 1999, he became only the fourth king in Jordan's Hashimite dynasty,Cheap Jordan Shoes, a relatively modern creation on the world stage. The Hashimites only emerged as rulers in Jordan in the 1920s, having earlier ruled the Hijaz territory of western Arabia. While this is an important point in understanding the political development of Jordan, it is not necessarily unique, even in the Middle East, where most of the monarchies have modem roots. Contrary to popular assumptions, these monarchies are no more culturally rooted in the Middle East than are the various other regime types and political systems. As Lisa Anderson has argued in her study of the resilience of monarchy in the region, “monarchy as currently understood in the Middle East is no more indigenous than liberal democracy."1 While the monarchies in Morocco and Oman indeed emerged before the establishment of European hegemony in the region, most of the other ruling dynasties owe their current form, as leaders of nations, to the European imperial era. Anderson makes the point more strongly.